Kejadian Merayakan Kemenangan (Solemn Mass Celebration Oleh Pope Leo X Memang Benar

Ada beberapa orang PH bantai Dato Seri Hj Hadi Awang pasal Hj Hadi buat post pasal Kemenangan Portugis ke atas Melaka telah dilapor dengan girang oleh the Most Delighted King Dom Manuel of Portugal kepada Papacy Pope Pontiff Leo X dalam surat rasmi tahun 1513 ke Basilica, Rome (sekarang dipanggil Vatican city).

Dan memang Pope Leo X dan ministries dia melakukan Solemn Celebration untuk itu.

Walau saya bukan peminat Hj Hadi saya rasa terpanggil untuk memberi fakta, snapshot dan sumber yang saya ada kepada posting yang dok bashing Hj Hadi tu, bahawa, memang wujud kejadian merayakan kemenangan (solemn mass celebration oleh Pope Leo X itu sendiri di Basilica/Vatican) yang Hj Hadi tulis tu.

Yang kelakar ada seorang tu siap delete bila saya telah beri maklumat tambahan secukup rasa kepada reply dan defense dia.

Sila tafahus dan baca dan lihat bukti-bukti gambar.

Berikut adalah teks penuh a Letter from King Dom Manuel kepada Pope Leo X.

(Surat itu diterima di de Basilica, Rome pada 5 September 1513)

To the most Holy Father in Christ and most Blessed Lord, Our Lord, the most dedicated Son of the Holy church, I Manuel, by the Grace of God, King of Portugal and Algarve, here and beyond the seas, Lord of Africa and of Guinea, and of conquests of the navigation and commerce of Ethopia, Arabia, Persia and India, most humbly kiss the feet of Your Holiness.

For everything, we have to thank the supreme goodness of God and also you, most Blessed Holy Father, which is evident from the information our fleet recently brought from India.

And the circumstance of activities, so worthy of admiration, carried out in the praise and glory of God, with such a success while you were the supreme Pontiff and presiding at the sacred church of Rome and the Christian world, this must naturally be a motive of praise and glory for yourself.

For this reason, it appeared to us a matter of justice to describe to Your Holiness, as head of the whole Christian community and model of recognized religion, the wonderful deeds which our troops have achieved recently in India with the approval of God and for His worship by summarising them in episodes and yet within the style of a letter.

And this in such a way, that everything may be evaluated in proportion to the worthiness of events and taken into consideration as the supreme God sees them so that, day after day we have the hope of easily augmenting the praise of his sacrosanct name and of propagating the Christian doctrine.

4. It was Afonso de Albuquerque, our captain general, after so many victories of uncertain wars, not without hardship and blood, (2) who obtained the pacification of India and left the necessary garrisons in it (3) and, to avenge the damage and affronts done to us previously (4), he attacked the Golden Quersonese, called Malacca by the neighbouring countries. (5).

It is situated between the large Gulf and that of Ganges and is a city of admirable greatness, estimated to have more than twenty thousand homes.

The land itself is very fertile and very rich in those mercandise goods which are most well-known in India.

For this reason it is the most famous emporium, where notonly the most varied perfumes and essences of all kinds are gathered but also great quantities of gold, silver, pearls and precious stones. (6).

This city was governed by a Malay Sultan (7) through whose power the Muslim faith was thus extended.

The rest is occupied by Gentiles. (8).

Therefore, Afonso set sail for Malacca with a well-equipped fleet (9) and decided to capture the city.

Foreseeing this, the Saracens prepared themselves for war with much ammunition and weapons, (10) but all in vain.

The truth is, having twice been engaged in battle with them, (11) our men finally emerged as victors, killing many of the enemy and entered the town by force and occupied it.

Having being granted permission to sack the town, they plundered it and set it on fire (12).

The Sultan himself who was fighting mounted on an elephant, was seriously wounded and decided to flee together with his surviving followers (13).

In this battle a large number of the enemy died and many were made captives but the loss of our men was minimal (14).

Many valuable spoils were collected, among them, seven war elephants belonging to the Sultan equipped with their silk castles and harnesses, embroided in gold according to the fashion of the place (15), and also about two thousand pieces of artillery made of bronze and of all types, laid out with the most exquisite designs (16).

Once the town was taken and the enemy defeated, Albuquerque built a fortress which was surrounded by sea and land, at the mouth of the river flowing through the town, in a place which offered more security for the protection of the forces.

It was well supported by walls, fifteen feet in width with stones which he naturally made use of from the ruined tombs of Saracens (17).

The Divine Providence is therefore wonderful, especially since for a long time, Muslim prayers were offered often enough wherein the name of the redeemer was blasphemed.

Now, in its stead by the mysterious designs of God in great praise and dishonour of Satan – the objectives that we were pursuing for a long time with hardships and loss of blood by our men for the promotion of the Catholic Faith – there later on, we would receive help for the construction and work which was so necessary for the Christians. (18)

At this time in Malacca there were many foreign merchants from different countries (19) such as Sumatrans, Peguans (20), Javanese (21), Gores (22), Chinese (23) from the Far East and from regions beyond China and other Gentiles who come here in great numbers to trade and fill the town which is so rich in gold, silver, pearls, precious stones, textiles made of silk, and also perfumes and essence of all kinds.

These foreigners and also neighbouring countries through their own initiative and free will sought a pact of goodwill from Afonso and they were received by him with benevolence and solicitude.

Once this trade agreement was signed, they transfered their business offices to the area close to the fortress where with great security they could carry on with their trade. (24)

In this way, they were quite satisfied with such a mutual agreement, for even now, this emporium is the most famous of them all.

However, it is thought that from now onwards it will become the greatest and most sought after there possible is.

Furthermore, the Chinese themselves are sending us a messenger to explain to us in greater detail their intentions (25).

And not only they but also the rest of the citizens of the town have agreed to follow orders and to obey the laws imposed on them, and they have also accepted the appointment of administrative and judicial officers appointed by the orders of Afonso through whose jurisdiction they are governed.

Similarly, they have accepted the coinage minted there in our name, recognising it as the sovereignty of the King and Lord and they gave the following quotation:

The gold coins are called “catolicos”, valued at one thousand coins of the ordinary currency, and the silver “Malaqueses” with the value of one hundred coins (26).

6. As he had come to know all that had happened, the King of Siam (who was very powerful with a great population and nation on this side of the Orient, and who was the rightful owner of Malacca, (27) which was previously usurped by the Muslims) sent an ambassador to our Governor with the intention of submitting himself and all his people under our protection.

He also sent a golden goblet with a precious ruby of great value and a sword of gold, all of which were made with much art, as a sign and evidence of the recognition and genuiness of perpetual friendship for the future (28).

The governor on his part sent him some experienced and able men with many presents, for the purpose of observing the hinterlands (29).

We do not doubt from this that many blessings will come from God and the Catholic Faith will be further increased.

7. Thus the affairs of Malacca were resolved and a trade treaty was concluded (30).

He (Albuquerque) left the fortress well provided with artillery, a secure garrison of 600 men and valiant soldiers, and a fleet well provided with troops and weapons for the protection of the maritime coast (31).

On returning to India, Afonso found the main fortress of the town of Goa besieged by the Muslims, which in years gone by, with great danger to our men but even greater slaughtering of the enemy (32), he had managed to subdue and thus increase the jurisdiction of our empire.

The fortress had been built by the side of another, which was very strongly built, where six thousands Rumes and Turks constantly attacked our men (33).

The governor attacked them and after many had succumbed in desperation for their lives, they finally surrendered themselves and their property to him but on condition that their lives be spared.

They found much booty there of no little value such as war machines, horses and weapons.

And furthermore, some renegades who had abandoned our Faith were found among the Muslims and they were subjected to their due punishment (34).

8. Meanwhile, on reaching the town of Dabul, not far away from Goa, a special envoy came to our governor from a very powerful Christian Lord, Preste John (35), whereby in his name, that is, from one Christian to another, he spontaneously offered all his wealth and all that was necessary for war against the enemies of the Catholic Faith, armies of soldiers, supplies of weapons and aid, chiefly if our fleet had to cross the Red Sea which is situated close to his own dominions.

There our forces could easily meet.

He sent us a sizeable piece of wood of our adorable and true Cross and he requested for capable and competent men through whose ingenious and technical knowledge, he thought it possible to modify by any means possible the course of the river Nile, deviating it from the territory and land of the Sultan. (36)

On that occasion, the envoy of Narsinga came before our governor.

Narsinga was (37) a gentile King who was so powerful (38) that he was known to be able to gather under his command for battle one thousand five hundred war elephants, forty thousand armed horsemen, and innumerable infantry soldiers and he possessed such an extensive territory that it could hardly be measured within six months.

Under his subjugation were many kings and provincial Governors among whom were a few coastal neighbours paying us tribute.

Afonso also met the ambassador of the King of Cambay (39), who had great power at sea and on land and was the greatest among the Muslims.

Also present were the ambassador of Sabato (40), formerly Lord of Goa, and the King of Grosapa, and many other (41) kings and provincial Governors.

They spontaneously pleaded with our governor for a peace treaty, as they brought along gifts.

Also in the fleet which arrived soon after, was an envoy from the King of Ormuz (42) who came with many presents of pearls and precious stones,an evident sign of loyalty and recognition.

This King was the same person that Afonso had established as King after having conquered Ormuz by force.

It was a very wealthy city and a notable emporium, which paid us an annual tribute of fifteen thousand seraphins, a gold coin which is equivalent to a ducat (43).

10. Among other events, Holy Father, through the assent of the Divine power, many people throughout India by the grace of the Holy Spirit and inspired by His light, daily abandoned their pagan practices and converted to our religion, embracing the true Faith of God.

For these reasons, we must render thanksgivings to the goodness and power of God, in lands so far away from ours and in such remote regions where the fame of His most Holy name has never reached before, through our zealous efforts it is now accepted that His Faith and true worship has been celebrated, announced and propagated (44).

For this reason, when our governor leaves behind sufficient garrisons in India, he sails to the Red Sea with a large fleet with the intention of occupying its entrace, thereby obstructing the trade of this region with the Saracens (45).

He hopes, with Divine intervention, that Preste John’s forces would combine with ours under the flag of the Cross (46), resulting in a greater service to God and the ruin and ignominy of the sect of Mohamed.

In the distant regions of the Far East, where it is already known that the sacred words of the Apostles have resounded, an alliance shall soon be formed with our forces from the west and they shall submit themselves to the religion of the true God with the help of the same Divine power, to render to the Apostolic Holy See and Your Holiness, as an excellent shepherd of the Christian flock, the homage and obedience which are normally accorded to him. (47)

11. The health of Your Holiness whom the merciful God may deign to keep and augment in accordance with your wishes for a long life and maximum happiness.

12. Written in our town of Lisbon on the 8th day of June (48) of the year of the Lord 1513.

13. Published in Rome by Diogo Mazochio on the 9th of August.***************—-‐———

1. This letter was briefly transcribed by Luiz Augusto Rebello da Silva in Corpo diplomatico Portuguez, Academia Real das Sciencias, Lisboa, 1862, Tome 1 pp 196-199.

To conclude the text, in appendix,is the following note : “Paulus Languius chronicor citizense, apud J. Pistorium, Illustrium veterum scriptorum, p. 890 (Edic, in the year 1613)”.

This is the only letter among those appearing in the Corpo diplomatico Portugues whereby in the first year of the papacy of Leo X he is informed of the deeds accomplished in India and in Malacca.

Soon after receiving it on the 5th of September 1513, the supreme pontiff replied to our King showing his great joy in the Portuguese victories at India and Malacca, as well as the information on the arrival of Preste John’s ambassador and the impending departure of Afonso de Albuquerque to the Red Sea.

Furthermore, in this letter, he informed him of a thanksgiving Mass he had requested for to be said in the Basilica of St. Peter’s which he personally attended:

“Quae noua, Carissime fili, in Consistorio nostro coram nobis et venerabilibus fratribus nostris Sancte Romane Ecclesie Cardinalibus elegantissimis tuis literis exposita, maximum, ac supra quam dici aue scribipossit, nobis et ipsis fratribus nostris letitiam ac gaudium attulerunt.

Quare pro rei magnitudine, sicut par erat, gratiae in primis omnipotenti Deo, cuius dextera fecit virtutem et subdidit populos nobis liberator noster, actae sunt, celebrata solemni Missa per unum ex ipsis fratribus nostris in Basilica principis apostolorum de vrbe, habitoque disertissimo sermone pleno laudis et gloriae Maiestatis tuae, totaque vrbe Roma et in ipsa Basilica Sancti Petri supplicationibus, quibus etiamnos ipsi coram cum dictis fratribus nostris interfuimus, ignibus ac aliis letitiae signis peractis, usque adeo ut nihil publice, uel priuatim sit omissum, quod ad relligionem pietatemque et ad pastorale nostrum officium ac ad declarandam conceptam animo voluptatem quoquo, modo visum fuerit pertinere…. (op.cit., tome 1, pp.201-202).

However, the celebrations of the Holy See did not stop here on the series of military victories achieved against the infidel and the religion of Mohamed.

This is found in Comentarios de Afonso de Albuquerque (as per 2nd edition, 1576), with a preface by Joaquim Verissimo Serrao, Lisbon1973, Tome II,p.III, Ch. XXXIX, pp. 190-206, “the oration made by Camillo Porcio to the Pope Leo X, an eulogy of the conquest of Malacca and of the victories the Portuguese had in the conquest of India”, whose description is preceded by the following texts:

“Once this kingdom was taken and a fortress built in the town of Malacca, the great Afonso Dalbuquerque immediately informed the King Dom Manuel of the state of affairs they were in, and to further enlarge on this, (as this was the Golden Quersonese, which was very well-known by all the ancient and modern authors) he wrote informatively in his letters to Pope Leo X.

“Having being notified by Joao de Faria, the Resident Ambassador, of the great Portuguese victories obtained in such parts of the world by the industry, valour and efforts of this great Captain Afonso Dalbuquerque, the Pope ordered for a solemn procession to take place in which he took part.

“On returning to the sacred palace, Camillo Porcio in the presence of everyone made the Oration, which is as follows, inOctober of the year 1513”.

Comentario de amo de Alhavetque op.cit. p. III. Ch. III, we see how Goa “was attacked

Fairuz Bin Kamarulzaman

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